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Guidelines and instructions for authors

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Article Presentation

Cover page

The cover page is a separate file attachment including the following information.

Title of article:

Name of corresponding author:

Academic discipline:

Institutional affiliation:

Mailing address:

Email address:

Telephone number:

Fax number:

Name and e-mail addresses of five or more qualified reviewers for the candidate:

See Cover Page Form


The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. The title should include the all of authors' full names and their affiliations. The name of the corresponding author along with phone, fax and e-mail address as well as current postal addresses should appear as a footnote with star symbol (*).



The Abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The Abstract should be 200 to 250 words in length. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No literature should be cited.



Following the abstract 5 to 10 key words should be listed alphabetically.



The Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be understandable to colleagues from a broad range of scientific disciplines.



Materials and methods should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address. Subheadings should be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail.



Results should be presented with clarity and precision. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.



The Discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on this topic. State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.



Acknowledgements of people, grants, funds, etc. should be in brief and placed in a separate section before the references. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.



In the text, a reference identified by means of an author's name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses (e. g., Alamidy 2003, Lucas and Sing 1987). When there are more than two authors, only the first author's name should be mentioned, followed by `et al.' (e.g., Walter et al. 2001). In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like `a' and `b' after the date to distinguish the works ( e.g., Peterson et al. 1999).

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text (e.g., K. Albertini, University of Cambridge, UK, personal communication). Journal names are abbreviated according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references.

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.




1. Journal article:


Lande R (1993) Risk of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophes. Am Nat 142:911-927


Ellstrand NC, Elam DR (1993) Popoulation genetic consequences of small population size: implications for plant conservation. Annu Rev Eco Syst 24:217-242


Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738


Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:


Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329


Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086


2. Inclusion of issue number (optional):

Saunders DS (1976) The biological clock of insects. Sci Am 234(2):114–121


3. Journal issue with issue editor:

Smith J (ed) (1998) Rodent genes. Mod Genomics J 14(6):126–233


4. Journal issue with no issue editor:

Mod Genomics J (1998) Rodent genes. Mod Genomics J 14(6):126–233


5. Book chapter:

Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257


6. Book, authored:

South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


7. Book, edited:

Smith J, Brown B (eds) (2001) The demise of modern genomics. Blackwell, London


8. Chapter in a book in a series without volume titles:

Schmidt H (1989) Testing results. In: Hutzinger O (ed) Handbook of environmental chemistry, vol 2E. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 111


9. Chapter in a book in a series with volume title:

Smith SE (1976) Neuromuscular blocking drugs in man. In: Zaimis E (ed) Neuromuscular junction. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 42. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp593–660


10. Proceedings as a book (in a series and subseries):

Zowghi D et al (1996) A framework for reasoning about requirements in evolution. In: Foo N, Goebel R (eds) PRICAI'96: topics in artificial intelligence. 4th Pacific Rim conference on artificial intelligence, Cairns, August 1996. Lecture notes in computer science (Lecture notes in artificial intelligence), vol 1114. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 157


11. Proceedings with an editor (without a publisher):

Aaron M (1999) The future of genomics. In: Williams H (ed) Proceedings of the genomic researchers, Boston, 1999


12. Proceedings without an editor (without a publisher):

Chung S-T, Morris RL (1978) Isolation and characterization of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from Streptomyces fradiae. In: Abstracts of the 3rd international symposium on the genetics of industrial microorganisms, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 4–9 June 1978


13. Paper presented at a conference:

Chung S-T, Morris RL (1978) Isolation and characterization of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from Streptomyces fradiae. Paper presented at the 3rd international symposium on the genetics of industrial microorganisms, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 4–9 June 1978


14. Patent:

Name and date of patent are optional

Norman LO (1998) Lightning rods. US Patent 4,379,752, 9 Sept 1998


15. Dissertation:

Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California


16. Institutional author (book):

International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1966) Nomina anatomica. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam


17. Non-English publication cited in an English publication:

Wolf GH, Lehman P-F (1976) Atlas der Anatomie, vol 4/3, 4th edn. Fischer, Berlin. [NB: Use the language of the primary document, not that of the reference for "vol" etc.!]


18. Non-Latin alphabet publication:

Marikhin VY, Myasnikova LP (1977) Nadmolekulyarnaya struktura polimerov (The supramolecular structure of polymers). Khimiya, Leningrad


19. Published and In press articles with or without DOI:

19.1 In press

Wilson M et al (2006) References. In: Wilson M (ed) Style manual. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (in press)


19.2. Article by DOI (with page numbers)

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med 78:74–80. DOI 10.1007/s001090000086


19.3. Article by DOI (before issue publication with page numbers)

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med (in press). DOI 10.1007/s001090000086


19.4. Article in electronic journal by DOI (no paginated version)

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Dig J Mol Med. DOI 10.1007/s801090000086


20. Internet publication/Online document

Doe J (1999) Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry.Available via DIALOG. of subordinate document. Cited 15 Jan 1999


20.1. Online database

Healthwise Knowledgebase (1998) US Pharmacopeia, Rockville. Cited 21 Sept 1998

Supplementary material/private homepage

Doe J (2000) Title of supplementary material. Cited 22 Feb 2000

20.2.University site

Doe J (1999) Title of preprint. Cited 25 Dec 1999 FTP site

Doe J (1999) Trivial HTTP, RFC2169. Cited 12 Nov 1999

20.3.Organization site

ISSN International Centre (1999) Global ISSN database. Cited 20 Feb 2000




An electronic copy of the manuscript should be sent by e-mail attachment in the word format to  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it    or  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it  .



Submission of a manuscript implies: that the article described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher. This publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The journal and publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. All include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.



Open access publishing is not without costs. Therefore, the journal levies an article-processing charge of € 175 / 225 $ for each accepted article for publication. We routinely reduce charges for students and authors from low-income countries. In case please contact Help Desk in:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it



Electronic PDF proof files will be sent via e-mail to the corresponding author. The proofs normally are the final version of the manuscript and only minor changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage. Authors will have free electronic access to the full text (in both HTML and PDF) of the article that can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles.


Text presentation


The text may be prepared with 1.5 line spacing. Times New Roman font of 12-point size is recommended. Authors are requested, to insert figures and tables at the end of manuscript after references.




The review articles and the short communications should begin with a short ABSTRACT followed by a short INTRODUCTION. The rest of the article may be titled and arranged as per the wishes of the author(s). REFERENCESshould constitute the last section of the article.

The short communications abstracts should be limited to 100 words and the article pages are limited to 8. In line drawings, all lines should be of uniform thickness; letters and numbers should be of proper dimensions.


Section Headings

Section headings (ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION etc.) are to be typed in upper case letters and placed on a separate line.

First-, second-, third-, and fourth-order headings should be clearly distinguishable but not numbered.


Preferred length

The length of the manuscript may be limited to 25 A4 size pages with 2.5 cm marginal and 1.5 line spacing.



Figures may be in JPEG. All photographs, graphs and diagrams should be referred to as a `Figure' and they should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). Multi-part figures ought to be labeled with lower case letters (a, b, etc.). Please insert keys and scale bars directly in the figures. Relatively small text and great variation in text sizes within figures should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. The title should be placed  beneath the figure.



Tables should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.). In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table. The title hould be placed iabove the table.



Manuscripts should be in English. British English or American English spelling and terminology may be used, but either one should be followed consistently throughout the article. We appreciate any efforts that you make to ensure that the language is corrected before submission. Usage of correct language is the responsibility of the author.



Each abbreviation should be spelled out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used. Authors should use the solidus presentation (mg/ml). Standard abbreviations (such as ATP and DNA) need not be defined.


Symbols and Units


Only SI units should be used.





Scientific names of organisms should follow the International Rules of the `International Code of Botanical Nomenclature' (Regnum Vegetabile vol. 138, 2000) and the `International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants' (Regnum Vegetabile vol. 133, 1995). Names of species and infraspecific entities are printed in italics and must be underlined. These names should be followed by their author names when mentioned for the first time. Author names (also from references) are printed generally in normal letters. For their abbreviations one should compare `Authors of plant names', ed. by Brummic's R.K. and C.E. Powell (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 1992).

Names of genera and higher taxa may be used without authorities. Names of cultivars must be set into single quotation marks (`Blue Star').



Applications of terms should follow preferably the `Glossary of Genetics', 5th ed., by Rieger R., A. Michaelis and M.M. Green (Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1991), this includes a list of common abbreviations of genetic terms.


Chemical and biochemical

Names of chemical compounds follow the Chemical Abstracts (Chemical Abstract Service, Ohio State University, Columbus) and its indexes.

Biochemical terminology, including abbreviations and symbols, follows the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Commission of Biochemical Nomenclature.

Enzyme activity in units following the Enzyme Nomenclature (Academic Press 1979).

For summaries of the abbreviations consult Journal of Biological Chemistry, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics and the Handbook of Biochemistry (H.A. Sober, Chemical Rubber Company, Cleveland, latest edition).